Jacobins

   The Jacobins were a radical political club that played a central role in the revolution of 1789. Known also as the Jacobin Club, the group was founded in 1789 as the Friends of the Constitution, which met in a former Jacobin monastery in Paris, hence the name. Both the count de mirabeau and maximilien Robespierre were early members. Although it had only 3,000 members in Paris, the club controlled 1,200 related societies throughout France, giving it enormous political power. At first a moderate organization, the club had a diverse membership (besides Mirabeau and Robespierre, who ultimately took control, members included emmanuel sieyès, charles de talleyrand, antoine barnave, the marquis de lafayette, and others). After the attempted escape of King louis XVI in 1791 and the affair of the Champ-de-Mars, the Jacobins turned against any form of royal government. At the same time, with the formation of the National Convention, the Jacobin Club, which now also used the name society of the Friends of Liberty and Equality, reached their peak of power. No important action was taken by the National Convention without Jacobin approval. All moderate members had left by 1793, at which point extremists took complete control. Dominating the powerful Committee of Public safety, they brought the nation into the reign of terror. The Jacobins, insisting on the death of the king, destroyed also the moderate girondins and executed thousands of opponents. Losing much of its power with the downfall of Robespierre, the club was closed during the Thermidorian reaction. it was reorganized under the directory (1795-96) without great success and was finally closed in 1799.

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Jacobins — (club des) sous la Révolution française, société polit. qui siégeait dans l anc. couvent des Jacobins, rue Saint Honoré (Paris 1er). En 1791, les modérés formèrent avec La Fayette le club des Feuillants, tandis que les Jacobins, avec Robespierre …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • jacobins — Jacobins, Famuli diui Dominici, Sodales Dominicani, Familia Dominicana: Bud …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • Jacobins — Eugène Viollet le Duc. Plan du couvent des Jacobins de Paris Les Jacobins étaient les dominicains de France, ainsi nommés suite à leur installation en 1218, dans l hospice de Saint Jacques le Majeur de Paris, qui deviendra leur couvent. À la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jacobins — Dominican Do*min i*can, prop. n. (Eccl. Hist.) One of an order of mendicant monks founded by Dominic de Guzman, in 1215. A province of the order was established in England in 1221. The first foundation in the United States was made in 1807. The… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Jacobins — Jac·o·bin || dʒækəʊbɪn n. member of the radical Jacobin party in during the French Revolution; radical, revolutionary, extremist; Dominican friar; type of domestic pigeon adj. of the Jacobins of the French Revolution; radical, extreme; of… …   English contemporary dictionary

  • JACOBINS —    a political club, originally known as the Club Breton, which was founded in Paris during the French Revolution; so called from its place of meeting in the Rue St. Honoré, which had previously been a Jacobin friar convent; it exercised a great… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • JACOBINS (CLUB DES) — JACOBINS CLUB DES Le 30 avril 1789, à Versailles, les députés du tiers état de Bretagne, parmi lesquels Le Chapelier, Lanjuinais, Coroller et Defermon, se réunissent pour débattre ensemble de leur attitude cinq jours avant l’ouverture des États… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • JACOBINS (NÉO-) — JACOBINS NÉO (1795 1799) En novembre 1794, la réaction thermidorienne impose la fermeture du club des Jacobins. L’histoire du jacobinisme n’est pas pour autant terminée, même si elle est éclipsée sous le Directoire par le babouvisme. Après… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Jacobins de Toulouse — Ensemble conventuel des Jacobins Extérieur de l église des Jacobins …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jacobins d'Angers — Sommaire 1 Fondation 2 Perte de fonction religieuse 3 Nature des occupants 4 Evolution du vocable …   Wikipédia en Français

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